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The following list is gathering all mime-types that are listed in various interoperability projects and standard protocols.

Row Color Coding

The red labelled rows are proprietary formats that should be avoided

The green labelled rows are preferred formats for IVOA tools (that we use in VESPA). 

The white labelled rows are formats to be assessed during the VESPA project

See here for extra types:


MIME-typeShortnameExtensionDefinition Datamodel
application/, .fitsAny generic FITS fileobscore
application/x-pdspds.qub, .dat, etc...Binary PDS filesepncore
application/x-pds-zippdsPDS files compressed (set of files in the PSA)epncore
application/x-pds3-detached-zippds.img, etcPDS3 file with detached label, gziped (tentative!)epncore
image/x-pdspds.imqPDS imagesepncore
application/gml+xmlgml.gml, .xmlGeography Markup Language (GML)ogc
application/jsonjson.jsonJavaScript Object Notation (JSON) fileepncore
application/octet-streambin.bin, .datBinary Dataspase
application/octet-streamidl.idl, .savInteractive Data Language (IDL) save set. IDL is a proprietary format.spase
application/octet-streamenvi.dat, .imgENVI format, binary with detached header. ENVI a proprietary format.?
application/octet-streammatlab4.matMATLAB Workspace save set, version 4. MAT-files are double-precision, binary, MATLAB format files. MATLAB is a proprietary product of The MathWorks.spase
application/octet-streammatlab6.matMATLAB Workspace save set, version 6. MAT-files are double-precision, binary, MATLAB format files. MATLAB is a proprietary product of The MathWorks.spase
application/octet-streammatlab7.matMATLAB Workspace save set, version 7. MAT-files are double-precision, binary, MATLAB format files. Version 7 includes data compression and Unicode encoding. MATLAB is a proprietary product of The MathWorks.spase
application/pdfpdf.pdfAny PDF fileobscore
application/, .eps, .aiA page description programming language created by Adobe Systems Inc. that is a device-independent industry standard for representing text and graphics.spase
application/vnd.geo+jsongeojson.jsonGIS file format in jsonogc
application/ Markup Languageepncore
application/ Markup Language in a zipped fileepncore
application/, .xlsxA Microsoft spreadsheet format used to hold a variety of data in tables which can include calculations.spase
application/x-asdmasdm ALMA science data model (final export format still TBD)obscore
application/x-cdfcdf.cdfCommon Data Format (CDF) filespase
application/x-cdf-istpcdf.cdfCommon Data Format (CDF) file compliant with ISTPepncore
application/x-cdf-pds4cdf.cdfCommon Data Format (CDF) file compliant with PDS4epncore
application/x-cef1cef1.cefCluster Exchange Format (CEF), version 1, is a self-documenting ASCII format designed for the exchange of data. The metadata contains information compatible with the ISTP recommendations for CDF.spase
application/x-cef2cef2.cefCluster Exchange Format (CEF), version 2, is a self-documenting ASCII format designed for the exchange of data and introduced for Cluster Active Archive. Compared to version 1, the metadata description of vectors and tensors is different.spase
application/x-directory dir Multiple files archive returned as a text listobscore
application/, .fitsA FITS binary table (single BINTABLE extension)obscore
application/x-fits-euro3deuro3d A FITS file in Euro3D format (multiobject spectroscopy)obscore
application/x-fits-mef mef A FITS multi-extension file (multiple extensions) obscore
application/x-geotiffgeotiff.tiffGeoTIFF is a public domain metadata standard which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file. The potential additional information includes map projection, coordinate systems, ellipsoids, datums, and everything else necessary to establish the exact spatial reference for the file. The GeoTIFF format is fully compliant with TIFF 6.0, so software incapable of reading and interpreting the specialized metadata will still be able to open a GeoTIFF format file.ogc
application/x-hdfhdf.hf4Hierarchical Data Format 4epncore
application/x-hdfhdf.hf5Hierarchical Data Format 5epncore
application/x-netcdfnc.ncNetwork Common Data Format (NetCDF) file version 3epncore
application/x-netcdf4nc.nc4, .ncNetwork Common Data Format (NetCDF) file version 4epncore
application/x-tartar.tarMultiple files archive in TAR format obscore
application/x-tar-gzip gtar.tgzA GZIP-compressed TAR file (x-gtar also sometimes usedobscore
application/x-votable+xmlvotable.xml, .votAny genericVOTablefile obscore
application/x-votable+xml;content=datalinkvotable.xml, .vot(VOTable containing a DataLink URL) To be used if access_url provides a DataLink responsedatalink/obscore
application/zipzip.zipMultiple files archive in ZIP format obscore
image/, .fitsAny multidimensional regularly sampled FITS image or cubeobscore
image/gifgif.gifGraphic Interchange Format (GIF) first introduced in 1987 by CompuServe. GIF uses LZW compression and images are limited to 256 colours.spase
image/jpeg jpeg.jpg, .jpegA 2D JPEG graphic image (likewise for GIF, PNG, etc.) obscore
image/pngpng.pngA digital format for still images. Portable Network Graphics (PNG)spase
image/tifftiff.tif, .tiffA binary format for still pictures. Tagged Image Format File (TIFF). Originally developed by Aldus and now controlled by Adobe.spase
image/x-fits-gzipfits.gzA GZIP-compressed FITS image obscore
image/x-fits-hcompressfits A FITS image using HCOMPRESS compressionobscore
text/csvcsv.csvTabular data in comma separated values formatobscore
text/htmlhtml.htm, .htmlText in HTML formatobscore
text/plaintxt.txt, .ascAny generic text fileobscore
text/tab-separated-values tsv.tsvTabular data in tab separated values formatobscore
text/xmlxml.xmlAny generic XML file obscore
video/mpegmpeg.mpeg, .mpgA digital format for movies defined by the Motion Picture Experts Groupspase
video/, .qtA format for digital movies, as defined by Apple Computer.spase
video/x-msvideoavi.aviAudio Video Interleave (AVI)spase
 idfs Instrument Data File Set (IDFS) is a set of files written in a prescribed format which contain data, timing data, and meta-data. IDFS was developed at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI).spase
 ncar The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) format. A complete description of that standard is given in appendix C of the "Report on Establishment & Operation of the Incoherent- Scatter Data Base", dated August 23, 1984, obtainable from NCAR, P.O. Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307-3000.spase
 udf Universal Data Format (UDF). The Optical Technology Storage Association's Universal Disk Format, based on ISO 13346. See <>spase
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  1. What does Data Model refer to?

    1. this is the data model in which the format was found (typically as an allowed value for a "data format" keyword). When it was not found, I put epncore by default, by we may only keep encore for those we have made a decision on.

  2. What MIME type to use for WMS? Is it ok to use multiple, separated by a coma, e.g.
    "image/tiff, image/png"?

    1. In the reference list linked above, there is a mention of


      which should do. The syntax for lists is image/tiff#image/png (separator is #, with no extra space or quotes), but this should not be applicable to product types: you're expected to provide only one product / granule.

  3. What type for spice kernels? - required to handle dynAstVO outputs.

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